CNC Router The Basic Structure
Nc milling machine is a kind of automatic processing equipment which is developed on the basis of general milling machine. The machining process of the two is basically the same and the structure is similar. Nc milling machine is divided into two categories: no knife and knife. The CNC milling machine with the tool bank is also called machining center.
In addition to the characteristics of normal milling machine, numerical control milling machining has the following characteristics:
1. Good adaptability and flexibility in the processing of parts, which can be used to process parts that are particularly complex or difficult to control dimensions, such as mold parts, shell parts, etc.
2. Parts that can be processed by ordinary machine tools that cannot be processed or difficult to process, such as complex curved parts described in mathematical models and three-dimensional space curved parts;
3. After being able to process the positioning of the clamping, the parts that need to be processed by multiple processes are required;
4, high machining precision and machining quality is stable and reliable, pulse equivalent of CNC equipment usually is 0.001 mm, high precision can be up to 0.1 mu m CNC system, in addition, also to avoid the numerical control processing operator error;
5. High degree of production automation can reduce the labor intensity of operators. Facilitate the automation of production management;
6, high efficiency, CNC milling machine generally do not need to use special process equipment, such as special fixture in replacing artifacts need to call a stored in the process of numerical control device, clamping tools and adjusting tool data, thus greatly shorten the production cycle. Secondly, nc milling machine has the function of milling machine, boring machine and drilling machine, which makes the process highly concentrated, which greatly improves the production efficiency. In addition, the spindle speed and speed of the CNC milling machine are infinitely variable speed, so it is advantageous to choose the best cutting amount.
The basic structure
Numerical control milling machines have various forms, different types of CNC milling machines are different in composition, but there are many similarities. This paper introduces the composition of XK5040A CNC vertical milling machine. Ⅺ saw 040 a type nc vertical milling machine is equipped with four 3 Ⅳ ma CNC system, using digital ac servo driver. The machine tool consists of 6 main parts. It is the bed part, the milling head part, the worktable part, the horizontal part, the lifting platform part, the cooling, lubricating part. The internal layout of the bed is reasonable, with good rigidity, with 4 adjusting bolts on the base, easy to adjust the machine tool, and the cutting fluid reservoir is in the inside of the machine tool base.
For the machining part of the frame plane or the different levels of the high steps, then choose the point --- linear system of nc milling machine. If the machining part is curved contour, the system of two coordinate linkage and three-coordinate linkage should be chosen according to the geometry of the surface. Can also be in accordance with the requirements of parts processing, on the basis of general CNC milling machine, CNC dividing head or nc rotary table, then the machine tool system for numerical control system of four coordinates, can processing spiral groove, the blade parts, etc.
The main function of nc milling machine
The point position control of nc milling machine is mainly used for the hole machining of the workpiece, such as the center drill positioning, drilling, hole reaming, dimpling hole, reaming and boring, etc.
The continuous control functions through the linear interpolation of CNC milling machine, circular interpolation or complicated curve interpolation motion, and the plane and surface of the workpiece.
Tool radius compensation function
If the contour of the workpiece is directly programmed by the workpiece contour, the actual contour line will have a tool radius value. In the outline of the machining workpiece, the actual contour line is a small tool radius value. Using cutter radius compensation, the method of numerical control system automatically calculating tool center path, the cutting tool center deviates from the workpiece contour a tool radius value, thus processing an outline of the meet the requirements of the drawings. Using the function of tool radius compensation, the tool radius compensation can be changed, the tool wear and machining error can be compensated, and the machining and finishing of the workpiece can be realized.
Tool length compensation function change of tool length compensation amount, can change the length of the knife after deviation compensation tool, also can change the cutting plane position, control of axial positioning precision of the cutting tool.
Fixed cycle processing instruction can simplify the processing program and reduce the workload of programming.
The subroutine function, if the processing artifact has the same or similar shape, is written into a subroutine, called by the main program, which simplifies the program structure. The function of the subroutine is to modularize the processing procedure, and it is divided into several modules according to the process of processing, which is written into subroutine, which is called by the main program, and the processing of the workpiece is completed. This kind of modular program is convenient for machining and debugging, optimizing the processing technology.